波兰的教堂 Churches in Poland

波兰的教堂 Churches in Poland

1. 原先在波兹南居所旁的圣约翰鲍思高教堂(Kosciol SW.Jana Bosko),建筑风格有些怪异,其实应该属于现代风格。每逢整点,肃穆悠扬的教堂钟声自天穹飘来,任个人有何辉煌或烦恼、世界有何变动或灾难,顿时一种寄托感、安谧感、净化感悠然自心底而生。

The Kosciol SW. Jana Bosko, next to my residence in Poznan some year ago, has a somewhat strange architectural style that should be modern style. Every sharp hour, the solemn and melodious church bell sounds from the heavens, whatever glory or trouble anyone is experiencing and whatever changes or disasters occuring in the world, suddenly a sense of sustenance, tranquility, purity and leisurely appears from the bottom of one’s heart.

 

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2. 波兹南社区圣母玛丽亚天主教区教堂(正面),建筑风格现代而怪异,外形似乐器,可能寓意对圣母玛丽亚的赞颂吧,或者寓意教堂音乐对人心灵的慰藉。如此肃穆的天主教堂却具有了浪漫的艺术色彩,其实也正体现了波兰人民对于艺术的追求–2013摄于波兹南

Kosc rzymskokatolicka Nawiedzenia Najsw Maryi Panny , the Poznan Community Notre Dame Catholic Church (front), has a modern and weird architectural style, looking like a musical instrument, maybe implying the praise for the Virgin Mary or the spiritual comfort by church music. Such a solemn Catholic church has a romantic artistic flavor, but actually it also reflects the Polish people’s pursuit of Art – photographed in Poznan in 2013

    

3. 波兰地下101.4米教堂–维利奇卡盐矿圣金加公主礼拜堂(Kaplica Świętej Kingi)。这座地下宗教宫殿始建于1896年,为慰藉矿工心灵,据说由三名矿工雕刻76年而成。礼拜堂的祭坛、神像、浮雕、水晶般吊灯等都是盐结晶雕成,堪称奇迹。故这里不允许触摸任何东西,只能用舌头舔一下咸咸的墙壁。维利奇卡盐矿是联合国教科文组织最高等级世界文化遗产,与肖邦并称波兰象征。

Kaplica Świętej Kingi of the Wieliczka Salt , the 101.4 meter underground church in Poland is an underground religious palace, built in 1896 in order to comfort the miners. It is said to have been carved by three miners for 76 years. Being a miracle, the altar, the statue, the relief, the crystal chandelier and so on are all carved out of salt crystals. Therefore, it is not allowed to touch anything here, but only to lick the salty walls with one’s tongue. Wieliczka Salt is the highest-ranking UNESCO World Heritage Site,  also known as the symbol of Poland together with Chopin.

             

    

4. 波兰的“现代”天主教堂—波兰是欧洲最虔诚的天主教国家之一,绝大多数波兰人笃信罗马天主教,与西面信奉路德宗新教和东面信奉东正教的邻国格格不入,教皇保罗二世也成为波兰的骄傲。但波兰现代教堂建筑风格也越来越现代化,有理由相信波兰人也会用不断发展的视角来审视宗教教义。–摄于波兹南圣嘉禄罗马天主教堂

“Modern” Catholic Church in Polska – Poland is one of the most devout Catholic countries in Europe, the vast majority of Poles believe in Roman Catholicism, quite different from Lutheran Protestantism in the West and Orthodox in the eastern neighboring countries. Pope Paul II has become Poland’s pride. However, modern church architecture in Poland is becoming more and more even modernized, and it is reasonable to believe that the Poles will view religious doctrine from a developing perspective. – photographed at Parafia rzymsko-katolicka p.w. SW.karola boromeusza in Poznan and Gorzow

        

5. 波兰古老天主教堂的忏悔室—忏悔是天主教的重要传统。每个天主教堂有专职忏悔神父端坐忏悔室中,忏悔者跪在忏悔窗前,隔着深色樱桃木的雕花和黑纱痛苦地呻吟:“神父,我有罪!”“好的,孩子,向父、向主、向我们永恒的上帝忏悔你的罪恶吧,把困扰你心中的恶魔的念头忏悔出来吧;但是,在这里,你的陈述必须诚实、没有一点谎言。”

即使现代教堂建筑风格越来越现代化,忏悔室也越来越简单,但忏悔却仍然是天主教的重要传统,为忏悔者保留解脱的机会

The confession room of the ancient Catholic Church in Poland – Confession is an important tradition of Catholicism. Each Catholic church has a full-time priest for confession sitting in a confession chamber, and the Confessor kneels at the confession window, groaning bitterly through dark cherry wood carvings and black veils: “Father, I am guilty!” “Well, child, confess your sins to the Father, to the Lord, and to our everlasting God, and confess your evil thoughts that haunt your heart; but here you must be honest and free from all lies.” Even though modern church architecture is becoming even more modern and confession rooms are becoming simpler, confession is still an important Catholic tradition, providing a chance for confessors to be free.

    

5. 波兰波兹南圣彼得和圣保罗天主教主教堂–位于波兹南最早定居点和宗教与精神中心的教堂岛,公元968年建成,是第一座罗马式教堂,前部塔楼为典型巴洛克风格,内部却无比庄严肃穆,主祭坛则为哥特式。内有12个无比华丽小礼拜堂,葬有波兰奠基者梅什科一世和第一位国王鲍莱斯瓦及10-13世纪所有波兰国君。

St. Peter’s and St. Paul’s Catholic Church in Poznan, Poland — the first Roman church built in 968 at Poznan’s earliest settlement and religious and spiritual center. The front tower is typical Baroque style, but the interior is extremely solemn and the main altar is Gothic. There are 12 magnificent chapels, buried with the founder of Poland, Meshko the First, and the first king Boleswa, and all Polish kings from the 10th to 13th centuries.

        

  

6. 波兹南圣斯坦尼斯教区教堂—东欧最华丽典型巴洛克式教堂之一,其内部无比华丽辉煌可以说超过西欧任何著名教堂,不朽的神坛、众多的雕塑与绘画作品,达到登峰造极, 由耶稣会士Thomas Poncino修建。

Saint Stannis Parish Church in Poznan, one of the most magnificent and typical Baroque churches in Eastern Europe, has a very magnificent interior that surpasses any famous church in Western Europe, and an immortal altar, numerous sculptures and paintings reach the peak of perfection, built by Jesuit Thomas Poncino.

            

7. 波兰第一个首都的最具历史性的教堂—公元966年皮雅斯特王朝梅什科一世接受拉丁洗礼,正式皈依基督教,罗马教皇首次在格涅兹诺建立波兰教省,波兰国家开始出现,格涅兹诺成为波兰最早的古都。格涅兹诺大教堂是波兰最宏伟的哥特式建筑,拥有14座礼拜堂、三个广场—摄于格涅兹诺。

The most historic church in the first capital of Poland. Meshko I of the Piyarst dynasty, was baptized by Latin in the year of 966 and formally converted to Christianity. The Pope for the first time established a Polish religious province in Gniezno, and the Polish state began to emerge. Gniezno became the earliest ancient capital of Poland. Great Gnezno Cathedral is Poland’s most magnificent Gothic building, with 14 chapels, three squares – photographed in Gnezno.

               

这是描述当时皈依基督教的洗礼的墙画 This is a wall painting describing the baptism of Christianity at that time:

8. 欧洲城镇最重要建筑标志是教堂,教堂的标志呢—很多欧洲城市建筑上的尖塔林立,十分壮观,但不是所有的尖塔建筑都是教堂,只有有着十字的尖塔建筑才是教堂—摄于波兹南和什切青

                

9. 波兰边境经济特区小镇的圣灵教堂–与德国仅一河之隔,风格却在德国难觅,虽说德国是宗教改革发轫之地,德国新老教堂风格仍中规中矩,而波兰新建教区教堂的建筑却是百般花样—摄于波兰边境小镇斯武比采

The Church of the Holy Spirit in a small town of the Polish Border Special Economic Zone, only separated by a river from Germany, is hard to find similar church style in Germany. Although Germany was the birthplace of religious reform, the old and new churches in Germany are still moderate in style, while the new parish churches in Poland are built in a variety of ways – photographed in Slubice, a border town of Poland.

    

10. 波兰边境省的传统天主教堂建筑给人以神圣、肃穆、高耸、恢弘甚至阴森的视觉感受,然而在波兰,新旧教堂建筑共存,不同风格也共存,所以观览教堂也是非常养眼的。下面图片中摄于戈茹夫的三个教堂:1)圣母升天大教堂,虽只有一个单塔直冲云霄,仍不失神圣、肃穆、高耸、恢弘甚至森森的视觉感受;2)圣斯坦尼·科斯特卡和圣安东尼教堂,尖塔直冲云霄,但因为建筑颜色为白色,竟然有了童话中的宫殿的感觉,一扫森森的视觉感受;3)教区小教堂,完全没有了高耸、恢弘的使人敬畏的气势;以及4)摄于与德国一河相隔的科斯琴的教堂。

The traditional Catholic Church, the capital of Poland’s border provinces, is sacred, solemn, towering, magnificent and even gloomy. However, in Poland, new and old churches coexist and also different styles coexist, so visiting church is also very eye-catching. The three churches in the picture below photographed in Gozow: 1) Notre Dame’s Cathedral, although only one single tower soars into the sky, still has the sacred, solemn, towering, magnificent and even Sensen visual feeling; 2) Saint Stanny Costeca and Saint Anthony’s Cathedral, the spire soars direct into the sky, but because the building color is white, it would give people a feeling of palace in fairy tales, sweeping gloomy visual sensation; 3) The parish chapel has no the towering, magnificent and awe-inspiring momentum; and 4) the church photogrphed in Kostrzyn, a small town only separated by a river from Germany.

              

11. 波兰无处不在的亲民小教堂—波兰数百教派的教会在鼓舞民众、慰藉民众、教育民众特别是信仰和爱国主义教育方面与民众有着无缝联结,尽管1998年后教会正式脱离政治。亲民的小教堂更成为民众神圣的“家”。如果不是细心留意建筑某处的十字,有时真的很难看出这是天主教堂呢—摄于波兹南

Pro-people chapels everywhere in Poland. Churches of hundreds of sects in Poland are seamlessly linked to the people in inspiring, comforting, educating, especially in faith and patriotic education, though churches officially seceded from politics after 1998. The small pro-people chapels have become the sacred home of the commen people. Sometimes it’s really hard to see if it’s a Catholic Church if you fail to pay enough attention to the cross somewhere on the building – photographed in Poznan

                    

12. 波兰亮丽的街心天主教堂—这是华沙圣亚历山大教区教堂,不以恢弘、高耸、肃穆显示其威严,而其坐落在重要大街中央从而形成一座孤岛的特权位置,无时无刻不在展示着其无比威严:众人车辆皆环绕在其周围而运行—摄于华沙

The most brillient street-centred Catholic Church in Poland. St. Alexander’s Cathedral in Warsaw does not show its majesty with grandeur, towering and solemnity, but sits in the middle of an important street showing its island’s privileged position and showing its majesty all the time: all the people and vehicles have to be running around it – photographed in Warsaw

    

13. 波兰的东正教教堂—戈茹夫东正教教区神圣天主之母圣诞教堂,专用于圣诞节庆祝活动,是1962年建成的一座新教堂—摄于戈茹夫

Orthodox Church in Poland. Mother of the Devine God Christmas Church of Orthodox Parish in Gorzow, dedicated to Christmas celebrations, is a newly-built church in 1962. — Photographed in Gorzow

14. 波兰的为纪念圣徒的木教堂—这是一个全木结构的非常精致的礼拜堂:波兹南宗教遗产保护大主教管区赫鲁多瓦罗马天主教众圣徒礼拜堂,里外全部木结构,为纪念二次大战中惨死德国纳粹集中营的当地著名圣徒—摄于赫鲁多瓦

Wooden Church for Saints in Poland – This is a very elaborate chapel with whole wooden structure: the Roman Catholic  All-Saints Church of the Archdiocese by Poznan Religious Heritage Protection, with all the wooden structures inside and outside, to commemorate the famous local saints who died in the Germany Nazi concentration camp during World War II – photographed in Chludowo

15. 波兰的废墟教堂—波兰与德国都是十分重视历史的国家,我们眼中早该被拆迁的废墟在这里都是不可磨灭的历史;波德之间有一座小城,1945年根据波茨坦公告以奥得河为界分为两个城市,波兰的古宾(Gubin)和德国的古本(Guben)。(古本和老法兰克福是德国在波兰边境上的两个最重要的城市)。这是古宾的废墟教堂。

Ruins church in Poland –  both Poland and Germany attach much importance to their history, and the ruins that should have been demolished in our eyes are indelible histories; there is a small town between Poland and Germany, divided into two cities in 1945, according to the Potsdam proclamation, bounded by River Oder, thus Poland’s Gubin and Germany’s Guben. This is the ruins Church in Gubin.

16. 摄于乌斯霍瓦的教堂 The church photographed in Wschowa

17. 摄于尼斯科的教堂 The church photographed in Nisko

18. 摄于皮瓦的教堂 The church photographed in Piła

19. 摄于戈茹夫的基督君主教堂塔楼  The Tower of Christ Monarch Church photographed in Gorzow_Wieza

20. 克拉科夫圣玛丽亚教堂 St. Mary’s Church in Krakow

    

21. 摄于格但斯克的教堂 The church photographed in Gdansk

22. 摄于托伦的圣母升天大教堂,建于14世纪  The Sacred Cathedral of the Virgin Mary built in Fourteenth Century, photographed in Torun

23. 摄于波兹南的教堂 Churches photographed in Poznan

                        

这里是波兹南一个教堂后面的墓地,座椅上是年轻人在看书和休闲的老人 This is a cemetery behind a church in Poznan, where young people are reading and old people are relaxing themselves.

24. 摄于卢布林的教堂 Churches photographed in Lublin

    

        

25. 摄于奥斯特鲁夫的教堂 The church photographed in Ostrow Wielkopolski

26. 摄于格涅兹诺的教堂 The church photographed in Gniezno

            

27. 摄于华沙的教堂 Churches photographed in Warsaw

      

28. 摄于卡利什的教堂 The church photographed in Kalisz

29. 摄于卡托维兹的教堂 The church photographed in Katowic

30. 摄于马尔堡的教堂 The church photographed in Malbork

    

31. 摄于热平的教堂 The church photographed in Rzepin

32. 摄于沙莫图维的教堂 The church photographed in Szamotuly

33. 摄于什切青的教堂 The church photographed in Szczecin

34. 摄于乌斯霍瓦的教堂 The church photographed in Wschowa

35. 华沙圣十字教堂。教堂中埋葬有波兰钢琴家肖邦的心脏和获诺贝尔奖的小说家莱蒙特的心脏。一句感人的“请把我的心脏带回祖国”。安放肖邦心脏的华沙圣十字教堂第二廊柱。

Holy Cross Church, Warsaw. The heart of Chopin, Poland pianist, and the heart of Nobel Prize winner Reymont, Polish novelist, are buried in the church. The touching words  “please bring my heart back to my motherland”. The heart of Chopin was rested in the second pillar of Holy Cross Church in Warsaw.